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Togo woman
A woman wears a mask as a preventive measure against the COVID-19 virus at Adidogomé Assiyéyé market in Lomé, Togo.

 

Togolese doctors are set to begin a series of tests to assess the efficacy of traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of patients with COVID-19. Professor Majesté Ihou Wateba, dean of the University of Lome’s Faculty of Health Sciences, cautioned that these remedies won’t cure the disease or kill the virus, but they might help to strengthen the immune system by helping the body to produce antibodies that will fight the virus. Clinical trials are set to begin over the coming days.

 

A Caution Against Wild Claims

Togo’s approach is more measured than that taken by Madagascar, where President Andry Rajoelina has touted Covid-Organics herbal tea—which contains the dried leaved of sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua)—as not only a treatment but also a cure for the disease. The drink quickly grew in popularity and attracted interest from several other African nations.

The World Health Organization issued a warning not long after Raojelina’s announcement, urging vigilance when using traditional medicine but still recognizing the potential of traditional remedies as viable treatments.

 

Prime Minister Abe at a TICAD IV Event in Tokyo last year with African leaders
Japanese prime minister Shinzo Abe addresses attendees, including top African leaders, of the seventh Tokyo International Conference on African Development, held in August 2019.

 

Under Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, Japan has taken a much more significant interest in African affairs. This has primarily focused on economic development, but also geopolitics, at times with a commitment to work with India to counterbalance China’s Belt and Road Initiative. 

The seventh Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD), held in August 2019, provided a window into Japan’s policies in Africa. The event was designed in part to help Japanese companies (and their government) to position themselves in Africa, where rival China’s influence is well established. The Japanese welcomed some of Africa’s most prominent leaders, including South African president Cyril Ramaphosa and Rwandan president Paul Kagame.

Japan pledged to some US$30 billion in public and private investment over three years at the 2016 edition of TICAD. Yet, this has often been spent prudently—such as a US$94 million doled out to renovate a Kenyan geothermal plant.

The 2019 event ended with Japan promising some US$20 billion in private sector investment over three years.

“If partner countries are deeply in debt, it interferes with everyone’s effort to enter the market,” said Abe at the event. Elsewhere, his comments on sustainability of engagement in Africa offered veiled swipes at China’s role in Africa.

Despite being the fourth-largest spender on development aid in Africa, Japanese trade with the African Union has been much slower to develop. Indeed, Japan’s trade with Africa in 2017 was worth US$17 billion, less than half of what it was in 2008. Meanwhile, China conducted some US$204 billion in trade with Africa in 2018 alone. However, other metrics tell a different tale there were some 800 Japanese competes in Africa in 2018 as compared to just 250 in 2010.

One possible reason Japan is treading cautiously in Africa is that it likes to avoid moving unilaterally and may be seeking to work more closely with partners in Africa.

Of potential partners for engagement with Africa for Japan, the most important may be that other large Asian democracy which is concerned about the rise of China – India.

Japan and India were the two main drivers behind the launch in 2017 of the Asia-Africa Growth Corridor (AAGC), which is often touted as an alternative to Beijing’s Belt and Road Initiative. Bangladesh, Iran, Kenya, Madagascar, the Maldives, Mauritius, Mongolia, Myanmar, Seychelles, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Thailand, Zambia, and Zimbabwe all became members of the project.

Yet, three years later, little has come of the effort, and a frustrated Japan may refocus on its vision of a “Free and Open Indo-Pacific”, a vision announced in Kenya by Prime Minister Abe in 2016 at the TICAD VI summit.  

 

Madagascar's President Hery Rajaonarimampianina (L) shakes hands with Japan's Prime Minister Shinzo Abe at the start of talks at the latter's official residence in Tokyo on December 5, 2017
Hery Rajaonarimampianina, former president of Madagascar, and Japanese prime minister Shinzo Abe shake hands at the start of talks at the latter’s official residence in Tokyo on December 5, 2017.

 

Japan’s plan to help Madagascar build a port at the outer edge of the Indo-Pacific region suggests how seriously Japan is committed to the plan. 

Japan envisions several economic corridors: a West African Growth ring to connect the Ivory Coast, Togo, Burkina Faso, and Ghana; an East African route to connect Kenya’s Mombasa with Uganda (which is likely in keeping with IGAD’s infrastructure corridor plans); and the Nacala Corridor which will run through the Southern African countries of Malawi, Zambia, and Mozambique (in order to export coal to Japan).   

On the security front, Japan is well ahead of potential partner India in developing ties with the continent. India held its first defense exercise with seventeen African nations last year. Japan, conversely, has built its first overseas military base since World War II in Djibouti, and spent funds to help stabilize northern Nigeria.

These commitments have not come without risks. In 2017, Japan was forced to withdraw its 350-man peacekeeping contingent based in Juba, South Sudan, after its deployment caused controversy in Japan due to the ongoing South Sudanese Civil War. That same year, a Chinese official newspaper reported that a Japanese naval ship had sent scuba divers to approach a Chinese warship while both ships were docked in a Djibouti harbor.

“Japan bears the responsibility of fostering the confluence of the Pacific and Indian Oceans and of Asia and Africa into a place that values freedom, the rule of law, and the market economy, free from force or coercion, and making it prosperous,” said Prime Minister Abe at the opening session of TICAD VI.

 

 

Undersea Cable

 

A multinational consortium of telecommunications companies—including Facebook, China Mobile International, MTN Global Connect, Telecom Egypt, and Vodafone—announced the construction of a new undersea fiber-optic cable that will connect sixteen African countries, Europe, and the Middle East. Named 2Africa, the 37,000 kilometer-long communications cable is scheduled to go live in 2023 or 2024.

 

Africans pay some of the highest data rates in the world.

 

In March, two undersea cables serving Africa experienced breakages that drastically reduced Internet connectivity for days as repairs were made. The addition of 2Africa will help improve Internet access for millions of Africans, and mitigate disruptions should other cables experience failures in the future. Such disruptions are not only frustrating for Africans, who pay some of the highest data rates in the world, but also have a negative impact on the African economy.

A 2017 report by the Collaboration on International ICT Policy for East and Southern Africa (CIPESA) concluded that intentional Internet shutdowns in twelve countries between 2015 and 2017 cost sub-Saharan Africa more than US$237 million. Unforeseen connectivity disruptions naturally can have far greater negative impact on national and regional economies.

 

Malagasy president Andry Rajoelina this week promoted a locally made herbal tea as both a vaccine against and a cure for COVID-19. Called Covid-Organics, it contains the dried leaves of sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua), which has long been used in Chinese traditional medecine and in antimalarial remedies.

 

A photo taken on 21 April 2020 at the Agroscope (Federal Competence Centre for Agricultural Research) in Conthey shows young Artemisia annua plants which the president of Madagascar has officially launched a local herbal remedy claimed to prevent and cure the novel coronavirus. The drink, which has been called Covid-Organics, is derived from artemisia, a plant with proven efficacy in malaria treatment, and other indigenous herbs, according to the Malagasy Institute of Applied Research (IMRA), which developed the beverage. But its safety and effectiveness have not been assessed internationally, nor has any data from trials been published in peer-reviewed studies. Mainstream scientists have warned of the potential risk from untested herbal brews. Fabrice COFFRINI / AFP
A young sweet wormwood plant, which is native to Asia but is now widely naturalized. (Fabrice Coffrini/AFP)

 

No Clinical Proof

Almost immediately, concerns were raised over the lack of any hard scientific evidence that the remedy actually works, and the fact that the president declared all primary and secondary schoolchildren are to use the treatment. A chemist who has spent fifteen years studying the medicinal properties of Artemisia annua, Dr. Pierre Lutgen from Luxembourg, published a statement on Tuesday, stressing that there is no clinical proof the herbal tea is an effective remedy, and that it is likely to harm the health of people who take it, children in particular.

Dr. Lutgen doesn’t want to completely dismiss the potential benefits of the plant, but fears that the president’s decision to amplify the untested treatment and gradually reopen the country starting Wednesday, April 23, could create false hope and discredit the value of the plant for use in other remedies, such as malaria.

 

Madagascar has managed to avoid the worst of the pandemic.

 

The former Malagasy president, Marc Ravalomanana, who is now in the opposition, also expressed his concern about promoting an unproven remedy, as it has not been endorsed by the World Health Organization.

Madagascar has managed to avoid the worst of the pandemic, with only 121 reported cases and no deaths. Locals and outside observers have attributed some of the country’s success to its tradition of using plants for medicinal use, alongside its swift lockdown on March 23 of its two largest cities, the capital Antananarivo and the port city of Toamasina, after the first cases of COVID-10 were confirmed.

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Sep 16, 2020